They were accused of. fascism.
Accordingly, people from all over the world traveled to Spain to fight on the side they considered right. Do not stand aside and the Ukrainians – just started a civil war, participation in it was immediately taken and our fellow countrymen.
Although one of the first to protect Madrid in August 1936 – when the war could end right after it began – 37 natives of Western Ukraine arrived who earned bread as miners and metallurgists in Belgium and France. Then they crossed the Carpathian pass of Yavornik on the then Polish-Czechoslovak border illegally left 180 more volunteers from Galicia and Volhynia to Spain.
According to the participant in the Spanish Civil War, the Soviet General Alexander Rodimtsev, the number of natives of Western Ukraine in international brigades fighting against the Nazis reached thousands.
And in 1938, the executive committee of the Communist International, controlled by the Soviet dictator Stalin, dissolved the Communist Party of Western Ukraine (CPCU) – because of the fact that the leadership had allegedly seized it. fascist agents.
Ironically, on July 8, 1937, a company of Taras Shevchenko’s name, which was part of the 13th Interbrigade named after Yaroslav Dombrovsky, was formed from the KPZU supporters and fought against the fascists.
The fighter Yuri Velikanovich (a member of the KPZU, who was born in 1910 in the village of Ilnik in the Turkovshchina) reported in the brigade newspaper “Dombrovschak”: ”
And yet her first commander (and part-time – the battalion commissar) was. Belarusian Stanislav Tomashevich, who wrote in the brigade newspaper Dombrovschak:
“From the point of view of combat training, the company of Taras Shevchenko’s name stands very high thanks to the experience of a significant number of comrades who have served in other armies before. We have Ukrainian officers, such as lieutenants Ivanovich and Litvin, we have Ukrainian sergeants and corporals.
The deputy commander of the company was a working Ukrainian from France – Pavel Ivanovich. But since all the mouths in the interbrigades included representatives of different nations, in Shevchenko, besides Ukrainians and Belarusians, there were enough Poles and Spaniards.
But our compatriots recorded in other companies of the brigade. For example, six of them – in the Chapayev battalion – along with representatives of another 20 nations. The Spanish “Vicki” recalls the fourth battalion of the thirteenth brigade “Mickiewicz Palafox”, in which “several Ukrainians from the anarchist army Nestor Makhno” fought.
Researcher Nikolai Platoshkin found that 498 interbrigadovts who arrived in Spain from Canada, came from Eastern Europe. And most of all – from Western Ukraine.
Fighters of the brigade named after Dombrovsky swear allegiance to the Spanish Republic.
In those cruel battles our compatriots won even despite the fact that they lost almost half of their personnel. But instead of the dead all the time they received reinforcements from the Motherland. Including – from. prisons. For example, in May 1937 Dmitry Zakharuk from Zhabye (now the district center of Verkhovyna of the Ivano-Frankivsk region – IP) fled to Dubna from Spain on Stanislavshchina and Simon Kraevsky from Ruslov on Dubnenshchina.
In these large battles in the sun-scorched terrain, not having enough ammunition, often getting surrounded, courage and heroism were displayed by the company commander, her commissioner Nazar Demyanchuk from Volhynia, who worked in Canada before the war; fighters Vasily Lozovy, Iosif Konovalyuk, Valentin Pavlusevich and Iosif Petrash.
Combat services of the company were marked by orders from the command of the brigade and the General Commissariat of the brigades. And at the end of 1937, the popular newspaper Borotba (Russian – Borba), which Velikanovich edited, began to appear in Ukrainian, and in which, among other works, Taras Shevchenko’s works and publications about him were printed.
And on the basis for the newly arrived interbrigadists in Albacete, a bulletin “³�� �� ������� ������” (Russian – “News from Western Ukraine”) was issued in Ukrainian. The epigraph to them were the lines of the Kobzar: “If you want to get up, / Kaidani pierce / I swear at the evil roof \\ ‘y / Will sprinkle.”
Then the company commander Tomasevic, her political commissioner Demyanchuk, sergeant Seradzky, the fighter Polikarp Krayevsky, were killed. But already in March 1938 their company in the brigade led heavy defensive battles on the Andalusian front, where it broke through the encirclement four times and bravely repelled the attacks of the fascists on the heights near the town of Kaspe.
Fighters of the brigade named after Dombrovsky after the Battle of Guadalajara.
Then the editor of the company Shister was killed. His successor was appointed Velikanovich, but he died in battle September 4, 1938.
And in 1982, Velikanovich in Lviv erected a monument to the work of sculptor Theodosius Brij, to whom unknown vandals cut their heads last year. If for the fact that he was a member of the CPCU, they most likely did not know that Stalin had banned the party and ordered the Chekists to shoot her leadership.
By their example and ardent word, volunteers from Ukraine literally cemented the ranks of Republicans. When they began to panic in one of the sectors of the front, losing weapons, ammunition and even outer clothing, the translator Maria Fortus shouted to them:
When on October 28 in Barcelona, the solemn farewells of the partisans, the Spaniards and the Catalans threw flowers at them. And at home they were waiting for the Polish. gendarmes – to imprison in the concentration camp of Bereza Kartuzka.
In Isprania he became chief of staff first of the 14th brigade, and then the 35th international division commanded by General Walter (Karol Sverchevsky, who was killed in 1947 in a clash with the UPA detachment, during the inspection of the Ukrainian lands annexed to the PNS).
The military adviser to the commander of the 3rd Corps of the Spanish Army, a Ukrainian from Odessa Rodion Malinovsky, who later became the USSR marshal, showed: “Korenevsky was an amazingly brave man. He selflessly fought against the fascists. ”
There were enough Ukrainian surnames and publications about the participation of former officers of the Wrangel army in that war. For example, the commander of one of the mouths in the Dombrovsky interbrigade was ex-Lieutenant Ostapchenko.
By the way, in December 1936, under Teruel, the mouth of this brigade, formed from the former White Guards, was almost completely destroyed. And several hundred of them were forwarded to Spain from France, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria and Yugoslavia. Soviet scouts, carrying out the appropriate sanction of Stalin on January 19, 1937.
Participating in the war in the Pyrenees, the former Denikin and Wrangelites had to prove that they had ceased to be “enemies of the working people” and thus deserved to return to their homeland. However, ex-White Guards fought with Ukrainian names and on the side of Spanish. fascists.
Fyodor Immortal met the war with a fifteen-year-old teenager who managed to pass through the orphanage and lived with his stepmother in the village of Gurovschina, where they moved their family in 1939. His peasant father was subjected to reprisals as a “kulak”, and his mother was forced to flee to the Donbas to avoid the same fate. In 1942, the Nazis drove the young Fedya to Germany, immersing it with their peers in a freight car for cattle. A cousin of Fedor, Zinaida Mishchenko, for life remembered how then Fedor ran to their house, beaten and all covered with blood. Since then only one letter has come from him, transmitted home by no means in what way. A guy from Kiev said that he was kept in a concentration camp, behind barbed wire and forced to work on local “bauers”. And again I fell silent, this time for many years.
The unjust punitive war, which ended for the French with a catastrophic defeat in the cauldron at Dien Bien Phu, was extremely unpopular among legionnaires who did not want to serve as cannon fodder and kill innocent people. “I saw that the killing of Vietnamese by the hands of capitalism. I could not take part in it. I could not shoot people at the wall & quot ;, – Zinaida Mishchenko tells us the words of Fedor. Desertion from the Legion was punishable by execution on the spot, but after the first battles, the Ukrainian Immortal and two Polish legionaries fled into the jungle. In the swamps of the Mekong River, they met the 307th Battalion of Vietnamese partisans and merged into its composition, turning their arms against the French invaders. Partisan detachment was commanded by former student Fam Hong Sean. In addition to Feodor, many defectors-legionaries voluntarily fought here: the Poles Jozef Sadowski, Edward Urbinsky and Platon Skrzynski, the Czech Stefan Pasterik, the German Adolf Peshem. Their comrade Fyodor the Immortal, who received the nickname “An & quot; – brother, and “Lien So”; – “Soviet”, enjoyed the general sympathy of Vietnamese fighters and the respect of commander Sean, who attracted him to the development of tactical operations. The immortal perfectly owned the captured French weapons and subversive business, fluently spoke Vietnamese and participated in a variety of military operations, for which he received two medals “For participating in the Resistance war”. He loved to sing Ukrainian songs that must have sounded strange in the thick of the rainforest, and he translated into the Russian anthem of the 307th partisan battalion: “Who has ever crossed through the stormy waves of the Nine Dragons. & quot ;. Here, in the detachment, Fyodor Bessmertny married the guerrilla Nguyen Thi Vinh, one of the seven children of a peasant family, a beautiful and courageous girl. At the age of sixteen, Vinh voluntarily left for the partisan detachment and, in fierce battles with the Legion, lost her right hand. Their son, Nikolai-Viet Immortal, was born in the capital of Vietnam – the city of Hanoi.
“He’s from the neighboring Motyzhin, where all our family come from!” There’s even “The Street of the Immortals” was. Or, on another – & quot; �������������� ����� & quot ;. Even now, many people remember it. And in the thirties we were settled around.
Fyodor the Immortal made his way to his homeland through the German concentration camp and the French Legion, through the African sands and the war in Vietnam, more than once justifying the surname he got from his ancestors. And we do not have the right to forget about the fate of such countrymen, in which all the puzzling zigzags of our complex history are reflected.
To which are still “Ukrainians”, if they all considered themselves internationalists, and if someone was from Podolia or Volhynia, then 99% were native. Yiddish, Polish or Great Russian.
>. that for the next SNOW from the “svidomiteh”. .
> What other “Ukrainians”, if they all considered themselves internationalists, and if someone was from Podolia or Volhynia, then 99% were native. Yiddish, Polish or Great Russian.
>. anyone could imagine, “sho” The Little Russian couple then could leave his house and “get up”, unless he is an ardent communist, i.e. an internationalist who was deeply sorry. . ENCOURAGE for attempts “spot-frost-bitten” nationalists.
> Little Russian mother Ostap.
Nasri on your head and razmazh.Ty not authority.
Rozpryagayte, cotton, horses. Ukrainian loved to sing in his lodge.
They were accused of. fascism.