The first wave of Russian emigration: centers, ideology, political activity, leaders.

The first wave of Russian emigration: centers, ideology, political activity, leaders.

The first wave of Russian emigration: centers, ideology, political activity, leaders.
In the 20th century, dramatic and very serious changes took place in our country, to which not all Russians could adapt. For decades, many Russians lived in difficult material and domestic conditions. Not all were satisfied with the authorities’ promises of a good life, which is about to come. “The fish seeks deeper, and the man – where is better”, – so the people formulated the reason for the “hunt for change of places”, which was discovered by many residents of the country.
Emigration (from the Latin emigro – evicted) is the departure of citizens from their country to another country for permanent residence (or for a longer or shorter period) for political, economic and other reasons.
It is customary to talk about four waves of emigration: after the 1917 revolution and the civil war; in the period and after the Great Patriotic War and the Second World War; in the late 60’s – in the 70’s; in the last decade of XX and the first decade of the XXI century.
But it is necessary to know that the first and quite large emigration flow took place even in pre-revolutionary Russia.
In 1906-1910, 950284 people from Russia left Russia for the United States. By number of resettled in a number of other countries, Russia took the third place after Italy and Austria-Hungary. Among those who left for America, the majority were Jews (44.1%), Poles (27.2%), Lithuanians, Finns, Germans, and only 4.7% among the departed were Russians.
Many Russians left the country after 1917, during and as a result of the civil war. Most often called 2 million emigrants of this “wave”. It was called by the famous writer IA Bunin in his lecture on the spiritual mission of the Russian emigration. According to the documents of the Russian Foreign Archive in Prague, the total number of people who left Russia in those years did not exceed 700 thousand people, including those who emigrated to China. After the Second World War, of the millions of people who were driven from the USSR, there were 120-140 thousand people in camps for displaced persons, where Soviet citizens were kept, who did not want to return to their homeland.
Russian diasporas were formed in Western European (Germany, France), Slavic (Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia), border countries (Poland, Finland, Romania, Baltic States), and also appeared in the USA, Canada and Australia, in Latin America and China. Russian emigrants had to adapt to life in countries that differed in their economic status, religious characteristics, political regimes, cultural traditions. The official policy concerning national minorities in general and Russian refugees in particular was also different.
By the mid-1920s, more than 500,000 Russian emigrants lived in Germany, 400-450,000 in France, about 100,000 in Poland, more than 30,000 in Yugoslavia, 30-35,000 in Bulgaria, in Czechoslovakia – more than 22 thousand In the Far East in the zone of alienation of the CER, there were up to 400 thousand Russians, 200 thousand of whom lived in Harbin.
In the first years after leaving Russia, it seemed to many emigrants that the Bolsheviks would not last long and they would be able to return to their homeland. Abroad, there were immigrant organizations that tried to shake the Soviet power from within or organize a new intervention. Some repented and returned home before the end of the 1920s. The transformation of the USSR into a powerful state, the victory in the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945, the preservation of a rigid political regime in the post-war USSR accelerated the process of sociocultural adaptation of Russian emigrants. Their children and grandchildren already felt less Russians than Americans, Canadians, Germans, French, etc. After the communists’ victory over Chiang Kai-shek in China, a new emigration of Russians to Australia, North America or Japan was followed.
Russian emigration was not a single whole. But an important role in preserving the spiritual connection with Russia was played by adherence to Orthodoxy, the Russian language and Russian culture. Abroad, many got acquainted with Russia through emigrants. Emigration has become a kind of historical phenomenon. It linked the old and new Russia, Russia and Europe, and other regions. Many Russian emigrants were real patriots of Russia and tried to be useful to her.
Economic basis of the Soviet political regime.
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