scientific article on the theme IMMIGRATION IN SPAIN Economics and economic sciences.
PONEDELKO GALINA NIKOLAEVNA.
The text of the scientific article on the theme “IMMIGRATION IN SPAIN”
WORLD ECONOMY AND INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS, 2015, No. 9, p. 80-92.
MIGRATION IN THE CONTEMPORARY WORLD.
IMMIGRATION IN SPAIN � 2015 G. Ponedelko.
The article examines the problems of immigration in Spain in 1985-2015, its dynamics, the latest trends and socio-economic characteristics, as well as its impact on the employment of the population and the economic growth of the country. The evolution of immigration policy of the government, changes in its content and approaches depending on the tasks facing the country is analyzed.
Key words: legal immigration, illegal immigration, labor immigration, circular immigration, migration policy, labor and social integration, Spain.
The article was received on February 11, 2015.
Almost the entire second half of the last century, Spain was a country of economic emigration, which by the end of the Franco period acquired a mass character and averaged more than 100,000 people annually. By the mid-1970s, 3.3 million Spaniards (10% of the total population of that time) left the country in search of work. However, during the years of democratic reforms, the situation began to change radically. Spain from a supplier of emigrant workers has become a country that actively takes on foreign labor. In a broader sense, the EU’s immigration gate, through which, in the 1990s, the beginning of the new century, more than 1 million immigrants passed each year, 40% of which settled in Spain itself.
DYNAMICS AND TRENDS OF IMMIGRATION.
If in the early 1980s, the number of legal immigrants in Spain alone amounted to 200 thousand people (0.5% of the indigenous population of the country), by the end of the 1990s – almost 640 thousand (1.6%), then by 2007 – 4.6 million person (10%). By 2012, this indicator reached its historical maximum – more than 5.7 million people (12.1% of the country’s population) , after which it began to fall.
The data of Table. 1 indicate that since the early 1990s, Spain has faced a non-
PONEDELKO Galina, candidate of economic sciences, senior researcher, Center for European Studies, IMEMO RAS, 117997 Moscow, Profsoyuznaya, 23 (marta [email protected]).
seen in its history as a demographic and economic phenomenon – a powerful immigration press. Its dynamics, given that most of today’s immigrants arrived in the country in the period 1990-2013, put Spain on the third place in the world (after the US -23 million and the Arab Emirates – 7 million) , and their total number is on the 10th place in the world1. At the same time, the number of second-generation immigrants, that is, immigrant children born in Spain, has increased by almost 15% – to more than 2 million people.
The financial and economic crisis of 2007 and especially the subsequent protracted recession changed the migration dynamics of the previous decade. The annual influx of foreign labor not only declined from 600 thousand in 2008 to 280 thousand people in 2013, but was simultaneously accompanied by its outflow. According to the National Institute of Statistics, in 2008-2013. Spain was abandoned by 2.187 million people, of whom 88% were immigrants, including those with Spanish citizenship, and 12% were representatives of the titular nation. In 2014, a new record was set: the number of those who left the country amounted to 417.2 thousand people2, of which 40,000 were native Spaniards.
1 Currently, the total number of immigrants (people living outside their country of birth) is 232 million people, or 3.2% of the world’s population. Of these, more than half (119 million people) live today in 10 countries: the United States – 45.8 million, Russia – 11 million, Germany – 9.8, Saudi Arabia – 9.1, the United Arab Emirates and Britain – at 7.8, France 7.4 , Canada -7.3, Australia and Spain-6 million people each.
2 El Universo. Available at: http: /www/eluniverso.com/noticias/ 2014/12/30 (accessed 12/30/2014).
Starting in 2011, for the first time in 20 years, Spain has a negative net balance of migration. In 2012, it amounted to 181.5 thousand and 124.9 thousand people in the first six months of 2013. As a result, there was a real threat that in the event of further growth of this process, Spain could lose the status of net-em-porter country of labor and return to the situation of the 1960-1970s, when she was one of the world’s leading exporters.
What is most sad, the vast majority of today’s Spanish immigrants are young men of working age of 25-45 years who have higher education and a high level of professional qualifications in science, biology, informatics and architecture. For Spain, this means the loss of human capital, directly proportional to the costs of training it, depriving the country’s production structure of the necessary professional personnel, not to mention the decline in the demographic potential that has fallen by 0.6% in the past two years to 46.464 million people.
However, there are other opinions. Some experts positively assess the situation as expanding the choice and geographical space of job search, contributing to the acquisition of experience and skills of the Spanish workforce, increasing the flow of money transferred by Spaniards-emigrants to their families to their homeland, reducing social tensions in the labor market. In any case, we are talking about the emergence of a new emigrant phenomenon of Spain, whose evaluation has yet to be done.
A comparative analysis of the immigration flow to Spain over the last two decades indicates significant changes in its socio-economic characteristics (national composition, educational level, gender, age and other indicators). In the 1980s, EU citizens – British, Germans, Italians, French, Portuguese, using the free movement regime as a special type of international migration began to be among the first to come to the country. It was basically the self-employed population and wealthy pensioners who moved to a permanent residence in Spain because of its favorable climate.
In the 1990s, in the total number of Spanish immigrants, EU citizens accounted for more than 50%. However, over the past two decades, they have given way to an ever-increasing flow of labor immigrants – immigrants from Latin America, Africa, Asia, Oceania and other countries,
Table 1. Dynamics of immigration in Spain, 19812014 years.
Years Number of immigrants (thousand people). The share of immigrants in the total population,%
1981 198.042 0.52.
1986 241.971 0.63.
1991 360.655 0.91.
1996 542.314 1.37.
1998 637.085 1.60.
2000 923.879 2.28.
2001 1370.657 3.33.
2002 1977.946 4.73.
2003 2664.168 6.24.
2004 3034.326 7.02.
2005 3730.610 8.46.
2006 4144.166 9.27.
2007 4519.554 10.0.
2008 5220.600 11.3.
2009 5598.691 12.0.
2010 5708.940 12.2.
2011 5730.667 12.2.
2012 5520.133 11.7.
2013 5072.680 10.9.
2014 4676.022 10.1.
forced to leave their homeland mainly for socio-economic reasons. The number of refugees and political immigrants wishing to escape from persecution, wars and terror in Spain is less than 2% [4, p. 27].
As of January 1, 2014, out of 4.7 million (10.1%) immigrants registered in Spain, 1.9 million (4.2%) came from the EU, and 2.8 million (5.9%) from third countries [4, p. 15]. The most homogeneous, organized and socially integrated ethnic group in Spain, formed by the commonality of Ibero-American history and culture, is Latin American immigration. By 2014, the number of Latin Americans who have been working here legally has grown more than 5 times – up to 1.5 million people (2 nd place in the world after the USA). Africa, despite its geographical proximity, is in third place by the number of immigrants (1.1 million people). Of these, 80% of immigrants from the countries of the Maghreb and North Africa, of the Western and Central – only 3.4%. Half of Asian immigrants are Chinese, 83% of those from Oceania are Australians [6, p. 2].
Table 2. Shifts in the age structure of immigration, 2007-2012.
Age category Share in total immigrant population,% Share in total immigrant population,% Change 2012-2007.
16-24 years 25-34 years 35-44 years 45-64 years 11.6 39.8 31.0 14.6 6.7 30.7 35.8 20.6 -4.5 -9.1 +4.8 +6.0.
Source: Expansion, June 24, 2013. Available at: expansion. com / 2013/06/24 / com (accessed 06.26.2013).
It is important to note the fact that almost half of the total number of immigrants falls on 5 national groups: Romanians – 14.5% (925 thousand), Moroccans – 13% (889 thousand), Ecuadorians – 6.9% (390 thousand), Colombians – 6.1% (270 thousand), the British – 6.8% (255 thousand people) [4, �. 23]. Among other national diasporas it is necessary to note Peruvians, Argentines, Germans, French, Ukrainians, Poles, and among the immigrant minorities – Belgians, Chileans, Uruguayans.
Immigration flow to Spain is characterized by a high degree of concentration: 87% of registered immigrants live in the Autonomous Communities (AU) of Madrid, Catalonia and Valencia, as well as in the Balearic and Canary Islands, in the provinces of Murcia and Rioja. The lowest number of foreign workers – about 5% falls on economically less developed agricultural regions: Extremadura, Galicia, Castile and Leon, Spanish enclaves in North Africa Ceuta and Melilla, especially in need of cheap labor.
One of the most important features of today’s immigration is a higher degree of its integration and organization, not only on a national basis, but also on family clans accepting visiting relatives. While in 2007 almost 50% of immigrants from third countries under the age of 55 years were mostly individualized labor immigration that was not related to family ties, during the crisis this indicator fell to 30%, and the bulk of immigrants, primarily from Africa and Latin America, aims to restore family ties. In 2007-2012, share of issued permits.
the cause of reunification with the family increased from 39 to 53% [4, p. 143].
More complex picture in the last de.
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scientific article on the theme IMMIGRATION IN SPAIN Economics and economic sciences.