My history of emigration of Australia h1>
Nevertheless, the output was found. Over the next five years, Russian refugees in Northern China were able to enter ships traveling to Australia. These people, mostly young and strong, acted as workers on merchant ships and paid for their travel with their work. Arriving in Australia, they made out immigration documents and, having got a job, they got the opportunity to write their families out of China. Some had enough money to get decked passenger seats on ships. Some, having arrived at the Australian port, fled the ship and later somehow formalized their stay in Australia. During the economic crisis of 1929-1933. arriving emigrants were required to carry a medical certificate of health and a certificate of their non-Asiatic origin, certified by the British consulate, and also to have for their maintenance a huge for those times the amount of 200 British pounds sterling.
In July 1923, a group of Russian emigrants arrived in Queensland on the same Japanese steamer Tango-Maru as AA Gzel and his family, among whom there were several officers who served in Admiral Kolchak’s army. Colonel BP Rostovtsev commanded a division of armored trains, SP Rozhdestvensky served directly under his command, Colonel AL Bolonkin, son of a worker at the Botkinsky plant, took part in the anti-Bolshevik uprising at the Izhevsk and Botkinsky factories in August 1918 and subsequently became commander of the 4th Botkin Regiment. All these officers, together with their units, retreated to Vladivostok and then crossed the border into China, where the army was disarmed and dissolved. Three Russian clergymen also arrived on the Tango Maru: Father A. Shabashev with his wife, Hieromonk Feodot (Shaverin) and deacon I. Nekrasov, who lost all his relatives during the revolution, and himself fled to China, crossing the Amur River. In addition, in the first group came families with children. The head of one of them, SN Dmitriev, before the arrival of the Red Army, served in the police in Vladivostok and chose Australia for emigration, since he already lived here before the First World War, working on the construction of a railway in Queensland. The head of another family, AI Suvorov, before the Revolution, was the director of the branch of the Russian-Asian Bank of Urumqi in China and lost his post in 1922, and his son-in-law NP Martsinkevich was the son of a wealthy tea merchant in Hankow. Among the first-arrivals NI Dmitrovsky also calls NI Igumnoy, an employee of the same Russian-Asian Bank, a tailor VI Smirnov and the Pozdnyakovs. Among the Russian immigrants of those years, one of the first in Australia were Cossacks – Orenburg, Trans-Baikal, remnants of the Izhevsk Regiment. The largest of them was undoubtedly a group of 66 Ural Cossacks who arrived on November 4, 1923 via Shanghai (China) and Nagasaki (Japan) in Brisbane. Organized, with their regimental banners, led by General VS Tolstov (1884-1956), who personally paid for their travel. After receiving favorable information from comrades, other groups of Cossacks began to move to Australia.
Ataman of the Ural people Vladimir Sergeevich Tolstov was born June 6, 1884 in the city of Uralsk. His father Sergei Evlampievich Tolstov, who rose to the rank of general, was later captured by the Bolsheviks and killed. In 1905, VS Tolstov graduated from the Nikolayev Cavalry School. At the beginning of the First World War, already in the rank of the captain, he commanded the Urals hundred on the North-Western Front. For bravery during the fighting under the village Barkhovitskaya June 29, 1915 he was awarded the highest military award of the Imperial Army – the Order of St. George the Victorious. When on January 24, 1919 the city of Uralsk was taken by the Bolsheviks and the commander of the Ural troops, Major-General Matvey Filaretovich Martynov was killed in the battle, he was replaced by VS Tolstov, already in the rank of major general. The Cossacks, who remained faithful, elected him a military ataman and commander of the Ural Independent Army. This happened on March 10, 1919, and during the next three months, the ataman Tolstov, having collected a 16,000-strong army, cleared the whole region of the Bolsheviks. For these brilliant actions, the Supreme Commander-in-Chief Admiral A. V. Kolchak made Vladimir Sergeevich a lieutenant-general. However, by the end of 1919 it became clear that the Ural army, affected by typhus and lack of reserves, would not be able to withstand the onslaught of the Red Army, which exceeded its size, especially after the transition to the Bolsheviks of a whole regiment of Kirghiz who had been with the Urals in union. Next was the transfer of the army to Alexandrovsk and then to Persia, as the general described in detail in his book “From the Red Paws to an Unknown Distance”, written on the basis of the travel records that he kept during the whole campaign, and published in 1923 in Constantinople: “There were people with a high moral image – Cossacks and officers, who went with me to all kinds of hardships and torments. Only with such people it was possible to make the first trip (from Guryev to Alexandrovsk) and start the second one. Years will pass, much will be forgotten, but it can not be that the great spirit that was in the hearts of dear companions of campaigns would be lost for nothing … and would not find a response in future generations of native Urals. ”