Moving Beethoven in a vein h1>
Biography of Ludwig van Beethoven (Ludwig van Beethoven)
Ludwig van Beethoven (Beethoven) (baptized on 17.12.1770, Bonn, on 26.3.1827, Vienna). German composer, representative of the Viennese classical school. He studied with his father, the chorister of the Chapel of the Court in Bonn, and the court organist Nefe (since 1780). In incomplete 12 years, he successfully replaced Nephi; At the same time, his first publication (12 variations for the clavier on the march of EK Dresler) was published. In 1787, visited Mozart in Vienna, who highly appreciated his art of the pianist-improviser. The first stay of Beethoven in the musical capital of Europe was short (after learning that his mother was dying, he returned to Bonn). In 1789, Beethoven enrolled in the Faculty of Philosophy of the University of Bonn, but did not study there for long. The final transfer of Beethoven to Vienna took place in 1792.
In Vienna, Beethoven improved in composition first with Haydn (with whom he did not have a relationship), then at Shenk, Albrechtsberger and Salieri. Until 1794, he enjoyed the financial support of the Elector of Cologne, after which he found rich patrons among the Viennese aristocracy. Soon Beethoven became one of the most fashionable in Vienna salon pianists. The public debut of Beethoven-pianist took place in 1795. In the same year his first major publications were dated: 3 piano trios op. 1 and 3 sonatas for piano. op. 2. According to the listeners, in the Beethoven’s game a stormy temperament and virtuosic brilliance were combined with a wealth of imagination and depth of feeling. It is not surprising that the deepest and most original works of this period are intended for pianoforte. Until 1802 Beethoven created 20 piano sonatas, including “Pathetical Sonata” (1798) and the so-called “Moonlight Sonata” (1801). In a number of sonatas, Beethoven overcomes the classical three-part scheme, placing between the slow part and the ending an additional part – a minuet or a scherzo; thus the sonata cycle is likened to the symphonic cycle. Between 1795 and 1802 the first 3 piano concertos, 2 symphonies, 6 quartets (Op. 18), 8 violin and 2 cello sonatas, and many other chamber ensemble compositions were also written. Beethoven amazed and amazed the young in a young age with the magnitude of the plans, the inexhaustible ingenuity of their embodiment, and the tireless desire for a new one.
In the late 1790s, Beethoven began to develop deafness; not later than 1801, he realized that this disease is progressing and threatens with complete loss of hearing. In October 1802, while in the village of Heiligenstadt near Vienna, Beethoven composed for his brothers a document of extremely pessimistic content, known as the “Heiligenstadt testament.” Soon, however, he managed to overcome the spiritual crisis and returned to creativity. The new – the so-called average – period of Beethoven’s creative biography, the beginning of which is usually referred to in 1803, and the end by 1812, is marked by the intensification of dramatic and heroic motifs in his music. As an epigraph to the whole period, the author’s subtitle of the Third Symphony – “Heroic” could serve; originally Beethoven intended to devote it to Napoleon Bonaparte. A heroic spirit imbued with such works as the Fifth Symphony with its famous “motif of fate”, the opera “Fidelio” on the plot about a captured fighter for justice, sustained in the traditions of the French opera of salvation, the 5th piano concerto, the overtures “Coriolanus” and “Egmont “,” Kreutzer Sonata “for violin and piano (especially its first part), piano sonata” Appassionata “, cycle of 32 variations of c-moll for piano.
Beethoven’s style of the middle period is characterized by unprecedented intensity of motivational development, increased scale of sonata development, bright thematic, dynamic, tempo, tonal, register contrasts. All these signs are inherent in the masterpieces of 1803-1812, which do not belong to the truly “heroic” line: the Fourth, the Sixth (“Pastoral Symphony”), the Seventh and Eighth Symphonies, the Fourth Piano Concerto and the Concerto for Violin and Orchestra , “Valdstejnovskoj sonata” for a piano, three string quartets op. 59, dedicated to Count Razumovsky (on whose request Beethoven included the Russian folk themes in the first and second of them), the “Archduke Trio” for pianoforte, violin and cello, and others.
By the mid-1800s, Beethoven enjoyed universal recognition as undoubtedly the first composer of his time. In 1808, he gave his, in fact, the last concert as a pianist (the charity performance of 1814 was unsuccessful, because by that time Beethoven was almost completely deaf). At the same time he was offered the post of a court conductor in Kassel. Not wishing to allow Beethoven’s departure, the three Viennese aristocrats allocated high monetary value to him, which, however, soon depreciated due to the Napoleonic wars. Nevertheless, Beethoven remained in Vienna, where until the end of his life he enjoyed the protection of his noble disciple and friend of Archduke Rudolph.
In the years 1813-1815, Beethoven composed little. He experienced a decline in moral and creative forces in connection with deafness and frustration of marriage plans. In addition, in 1815, the care for the nephew (the son of the deceased brother), who had a very difficult character, lay on Beethoven’s shoulders; on the implementation of trusteeship Beethoven was forced to sue with his brother’s widow. Soon a new – relatively speaking, late – period of Beethoven’s creative work began. For 11 years from his pen came 16 works of a large scale: 2 cellos and 5 piano sonatas, Thirty-three variations on the waltz by A. Diabelli, Solemn Mass, Ninth Symphony and 6 string quartets.
The music of the late Beethoven retains and even exacerbates such a trait of his former style as the richness of contrasts. As in dramatic and ecstatic-jubilant, and in lyrical or prayer-meditative episodes, this music appeals to extreme possibilities of human perception and empathy. For Beethoven, the act of writing consisted in the struggle against inert sound matter, as evidenced by the hasty and often illegible records of his drafts; The emotional atmosphere of his late opuses is largely determined by the feeling of painfully overcoming counteraction. Late Beethoven does not count very much with conventions accepted in performing practice (a characteristic stroke: after learning that violinists complain about technical difficulties in his quartet, Beethoven allegedly exclaimed: “What do I care about their violins, when inspiration speaks in me!”). He has a special passion for extremely high and extremely low instrument registers (which is partly due to the narrowing of the spectrum of sounds available to his ears) to complex, often highly sophisticated polyphonic and variational forms, to extend the traditional four-part instrumental cycle by including additional parts or partitions.
One of Beethoven’s most courageous experiments on the renewal of form is a huge choral finale of the Ninth Symphony to Schiller’s Ode to Joy. Here, for the first time in the history of music, Beethoven synthesized symphonic and oratorio genres. The ninth symphony served as a model for artists of the Romantic era, keen on the utopia of synthetic art, capable of transforming human nature and spiritually unite the masses of people. As for the esoteric music of the last sonatas, variations and especially quartets, it is customary to see in it the foreshadowing of some important principles of the organization of themes, rhythm, harmony, developed in the 20th century. In the solemn mass, which Beethoven considered his best creation, the pathos of the universal message and the refined, in places almost chambered letter with elements of stylization in an archaic spirit, constitute a unique unity of its kind.
In the 1820s, the fame of Ludwig van Beethoven went far beyond Austria and Germany. Solemn mass, written by order, received from London, was first performed in St. Petersburg. Although the work of the late Beethoven did not correspond much to the tastes of the contemporary Viennese public, who gave his sympathies to Rossini and facilitated forms of chamber music making, fellow citizens realized the true scale of his personality. When Beethoven died (from cirrhosis of the liver), on his last journey he was followed by about 10,000 people.
“Grove’s musical dictionary.” Publishing house “Practice”.