Israel statistics emigration h1>
April 29 – May 19, 2002.
I worked on the topic of the issue.
Russia’s special role for Israel 4.
In Israel, immigration is viewed not simply as a vital process in terms of economic and demographic development process, but also as one of the key elements of state ideology. Therefore, it is not surprising that the immigration flow to the country is subject to careful statistical observation. In order to facilitate the accelerated and painless adaptation of immigrants to Israel, the Ministry of Immigrant Absorption was created. Control over immigration processes is based on the developed legislative framework, which is based on the Law on Return or the Law on Entry into the Country.
The definition of an international migrant in the national statistics of Israel is different from that recommended by the UN. Citizens of other states who come or leave Israel, when crossing the border, fill out special forms in accordance with the type of visa they have issued: immigration, tourist, temporary residence, etc. Information about persons with an immigrant visa is then transferred to the population register. According to the definition, an immigrant in Israel is a citizen of another state who enters Israel for permanent residence in accordance with the provisions of the Law on Return or the Law on Entry into the Country. In addition, the statistics of the international migration of Israel identifies such a specific category as “potential immigrants”. According to the circular of the Ministry of the Interior, since 1991, this category includes persons who arrived in the country on an immigration visa or a certificate under the Law on Return with the intention of staying in Israel for up to 3 years in order to ascertain the conditions for settlement as immigrants. Potential immigrants are included in the total final number of immigrants per year. In general, Israel has established a reliable record of immigrants with their different socio-demographic characteristics.
The international migration of Israeli citizens is determined differently from foreigners. In the category & quot; left Israelis & quot; get those Israeli citizens who are going to stay abroad 365 days or more, but stayed in Israel for at least 90 days before departure. To & quot; returning Israeli citizens & quot; are those Israelis who have lived abroad for 365 days or more and intend to stay in Israel for at least 90 days.
Between 1919 and 1989, 270,000 immigrants born in the former Soviet Union arrived in Israel, or approximately 12% of the total number of immigrants during that period. From 1990 to 2000, Israel received more than 870,000 natives of the former Soviet republics. This figure was 26% of the total number of 3,333,000 registered immigrants who arrived in Israel from 1919 to 2000.
The distribution of migrants in the republics of the former union, as the previous place of residence, in Israeli statistics is shown since 1990. During the period from 1990 to 1997, most of the immigrants arrived from Ukraine (more than 225 thousand), the Russian Federation (more than 220 thousand), Uzbekistan (about 70 thousand) and Belarus (more than 61 thousand). The percentage distribution of immigrants in the 1990s between the main areas of their origin is shown in Figure 3.
Figure 3. Distribution of immigrants to Israel by major regions of their origin.
The definitions of emigrants in Russia and immigrants in Israel as a whole are identical, since the main criterion for their determination – leaving the country and entering the country for permanent residence – is the same. In general, between 1990 and 1997, a balance is maintained between Russian data on emigration to Israel and Israeli immigration data from Russia. According to Russian data, slightly more than 203 thousand people left for Israel, according to Israeli figures – about 215 thousand people arrived from Russia. However, in some years there are quite significant differences. So, in 1990, according to the data of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR, 61 thousand people of the RSFSR got permission to go to Israel. According to Israeli statistics, slightly more than 45,000 people from the Russian Federation arrived (including potential immigrants). Probably not all of those who received permission to leave Russia took advantage of it, and some of those who left went to Israel and not to another country. In subsequent years, the differences between the statistical estimates of the two countries decreased, but there was a steady increase in Israeli estimates over Russia (Table 3). In 1995-1997, the difference between them was approximately 10%. With all caution we assume that the probable flow of immigrants from Russia to Israel is 1.1 times greater than the emigration outflow noted in Russian statistical handbooks.
4- As initial statistical materials of this section, publications from different years were used: Central Bureau of Statistics, Immigration to Israel, Jerusalem, and Central Bureau of Statistics, Statistical Abstract of Israel, Jerusalem.