Immigration of Spaniards to the United States h1>
Many Americans were amazed at the fact that in the US more than 20 million people (more than 10% of the population) speak Spanish, almost half of these people are citizens born in the USA (Beardsley, 1990. P.15). That’s why there are more than 100 channels in the country with programs in Spanish, over 600 radio stations, 150 newspapers, 125 magazines (Alcantara, 1995. P.169). If in the 80’s. XX century. The USA was the fourth Spanish-speaking country in the world, following Mexico, Spain and Argentina, in the first quarter of the 21st century. this country is projected to take the second place (Bergen, 1999. P.2). The Spanish, or the so-called Neolithic language, one of the most widespread in the world, now plays an important role in the United States for a number of different reasons (historical, political, immigration, demographic, economic).
Studies conducted by the North American Academy of Spanish Studies have shown that there are 4 main Hispanic zones in the USA: 1) Northeast, where Mexicans predominate, 2) Florida, where most of the Cubans live, 3) East, representing Hispanic Puerto Rican, Dominican and Cuban, 4) Chicago, where the Mexican and Puerto Rican minorities live (Betanzos 1995-96 P.130). Researchers note that the diversity of the ethnocultural origin of Hispanic citizens of the United States leads to the fact that in almost 44 states they speak different versions of the Spanish language. Spanish is the language of a large minority, and the scale of such a large number is quite reasonable in pointing out the possibility of giving the Spanish language the status of a second state language.
In the 1960-70’s. due to the stricter struggle for the civil rights of minorities, the Congress adopted the Bilingual Educational Act. This gave rise to many protests in society, however, bilingual education has become a reality, an integral part of education in the United States. In the 1960-70’s. German and French were the most popular foreign languages in the US, today about 3 million students in secondary schools and 700,000 university students study Spanish.
In the United States, the linguistic policy of the Spanish language is conducted, which boils down to the following: citizens of Hispanic origin should speak Spanish. The overall objective of this policy implies the following principles:
The principle of internal distribution (Spanish should be spoken by citizens of Hispanic origin) – in fact, already exists, it is proposed to distribute it within the Spanish-speaking community among those residents who speak only English or have a poor command of their native (by origin) language.
The principle of external dissemination implies that all US citizens, in addition to the English language, should also be proficient in Spanish. It is about provoking the desire of the inhabitants of the United States to speak Spanish. The Spanish language should not replace other languages, not be a “second” language; The reality of the United States, where they speak English, should be supplemented by the fact that, in addition to it, they are also spoken in Spanish.
The linguistic policy of the Spanish language in its internal and external manifestation provides for the spread of the culture of Spain and Latin America. At present, many efforts are being made in the audio and video markets of Spain and America, in the book and music industries, in electronic communication in order to interest and captivate the Spanish language.
The third goal of this linguistic policy is international distribution. The principle of international distribution is aimed at turning the Spanish language into the American language in the United States.
The main instrument for the implementation of linguistic policy in the US is the Instituto Cervantes, as well as the Spanish Embassy, which undertook the responsibility to support the teaching of Spanish in US secondary schools. The Royal Academy of Spanish is a model of linguistic policy for Hispanic in America. According to Pedro Alvarez de Miranda (Alv? Rez De Miranda 1995, P.270), “no other institution of any country of our language has reached such a degree of prestige and authority in the idiomatic area compared to the successes of the Spanish Academy.”
Among the many projects aimed at spreading the Spanish language abroad, the most successful were the project of the international dissemination of the Spanish language on radio, television and the press (DIES-RTVP), as well as the activities of the Royal Academy of the Spanish language on the Internet (http: // www .rae.es /), in the Corpus of Reference of Modern Spanish (CREA), in the Diaconic Corps of Spanish (CORDE). Similarly, through its virtual center in the network (http://www.cervantes.es/), the Cervantes Institute distributes Spanish around the world, connected by the web of the Internet, especially, of course, in the US. The current acting director, Fernando Rodriguez Lafuente, understands perfectly the American character of the Spanish language: “The Spanish language today, based on the number of people speaking it, is also American, because almost nine out of ten live on the other side of the Atlantic Ocean” (Rodr & guez Lafuente 1999).
Visit of the famous US information industry entrepreneur Bill Gates to the Royal Academy of Spanish Juan Luis Sebrian comments as follows: “He discovered that in Madrid, Spanish is spoken as well as in Los Angeles in terms of grammar, vocabulary, the same orthography . He realized that in the commercial sense it is a bomb “(Cebri 1999).
In the empire of the English language, in the USA, there live a large number of Hispanic speakers, so it was, and such a prospect is quite predictable in the future. “Inside this” America “- another continent where Spanish is spoken, the US in itself, in its importance, is a different world. So let us make it the Spanish world “(Garrido 2000), – calls on one of the famous Spanish writers.
Now you need to press on the keyboard such a key combination that will match this symbol Spanish slang. Funny expressions. Conjugation of the verb estar.
Agree: memorized phrases, hackneyed expressions – it’s boring, both for the speaker and the listener Customs and traditions.
This holiday in Germany and other Catholic countries celebrate a significant biblical event – the worship of the Magi from the East to the Divine Child Jesus.
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