Immigration of financial independents in France h1>
1041 university, 2170 subject.
The USA is a country of classical immigration that laid the foundation of the modern ethnic and national structure of this country. It was immigrants who traditionally made the greatest contribution to the economic and social development of the state; it was on the basis of their ideas that the political structure of American society was formed. Immigrants formed a significant part of the natural growth of the US population during, in fact, the XIX – XX centuries. Currently, about 7% of the US population are born abroad. Uneven distribution of immigrants in the country – seven states received 75% of the total number of immigrants (in the first places – California, New York, Texas, Florida), which is mainly due to two factors: the opportunity to find work, and the place where friends have already settled or family members (these are the main factors in the formation of the first links in the migration chain). Currently, immigrants from Mexico, the Philippines, India, Vietnam, China are predominant in the United States. Russia ranks second among the CIS countries after Ukraine (19.7 thousand and 21.1 thousand respectively), with 68% of all immigrants arriving in the United States as part of “refugee programs” (40% from Ukraine, 88 from Uzbekistan, 77 from Moldova, 15 from Russia, 6.6% from Belarus) 97. The United States in every possible way contributes to the influx of a large number of scientists and engineers from Europe, East and South Asia. Willingly accept large businessmen from Cuba and the countries of Latin America. Only four years (1966 – 1969) in the US officially immigrated 43 thousand engineers and scientists. In the 1980s, on the whole, in the US labor market, 40% of doctors in engineering and computer disciplines and 25% of technical teachers in higher education institutions were immigrants. In the mid-1990s, more than 11 million immigrants lived in the United States. Thus, the US economy, most adapted to the absorption of additional labor, transformed it into a “brain drain”, which led to a high contribution made by immigrant professionals in the development of American science, medicine and art.
Western Europe has traditionally been a region in which migration processes have been active for a long time. Countries that host the bulk of immigrants are Germany, France, Great Britain, the Netherlands. Currently, there are approximately 20 million legal migrants and their families in Europe, including 13 million in the European Union. A characteristic feature of the labor market in this region is the specificity of labor demand for each country. In interstate movements, young people usually participate, as a rule, people under 25 years of age. Studies show that the proportion of young people in foreign labor in different periods of time reached in France and the Netherlands more than 40%, in Belgium – about half of the total number of foreign workers.
Germany is most attractive for the workforce from Eastern Europe, as it has a relatively favorable economic environment, relatively liberal immigration legislation, as well as well-established mechanisms for attracting foreigners to the domestic labor market that have developed in recent decades. Currently, approximately 5 million foreigners live in the Federal Republic of Germany, which is about 7% of the country’s population.
In France there are more than 4 million immigrants, i. about 7% of the country’s population. Most of them (39%) come from Southern Europe, 10 from Western Europe, 27 from North Africa, 12% from “black” Africa. Immigrants from the countries of Eastern and Central Europe and CIS countries make up only 7%. Legislative acts quite strictly regulate the stay of immigrants in France. However, up to 10 thousand people. a year still recruited at the request of firms, organizations, enterprises, as well as municipalities. Clandestine immigrants make up the lion’s share of the shadow economy, whose annual turnover is estimated at about 250 billion francs a year in France, which is comparable to the turnover of an industry such as agriculture.
In Western Europe, until recently foreign workers were used in those areas where the share of manual labor (construction, service) is high, and in those industries where work is too dangerous. The share of foreigners in these industries reached 70%, and this proves that such enterprises are already “oriented” to the new labor force. Recently, in Western Europe, there have been some changes in the traditional pattern of employment of foreign labor. There has been a significant reduction in the employment of foreigners in the steel industry, metalworking, automotive industry. At the same time, the share of foreign workers has increased in the service sector. Over the past 10 years, the number of immigrants working in trade has increased by 50%, and those engaged in industrial services – by 70%. The German giants IBM Deutschland, Digital Eguipment and Simens-Nixdorf have been increasingly attracting highly skilled computer specialists from Russia and Eastern Europe, India, since the early 1990s. Thus, they acquire a highly skilled labor force and save labor costs.
In the 70 years of the twentieth century. the labor market in the region of the oil-producing countries of the Middle East was formed. In the 90 years there were more than 4.5 million migrant workers (while the number of local workers was 2 million people). The share of foreign labor in the total labor force is very significant. In the United Arab Emirates it is about 97%, in Qatar – 95.6%, in Kuwait – 86.5%, in Saudi Arabia and Bahrain – 40%. The main exporter of labor in this region is Egypt, as well as Iraq, Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Pakistan, India, Bangladesh. The bulk of the workforce comes from India and Pakistan, with whom the residents of the Arabian Gulf coast have traditionally maintained close relations. About 79% of the labor force in the UAE, which is now estimated at about 800 thousand people, are immigrants from the two countries. Indigenous people account for only 10%. The country has about 300 thousand Indians. (They are engaged in trade, finance and services, printing, transport and construction.) The second major Asian colony is the Pakistani one, numbering about 300 thousand people. Pakistanis work mainly on construction sites, transport. They make up the majority among taxi drivers, who are also employed by Afghans, Indians and representatives of some Arab countries, such as Syria, Egypt, Jordan. In the UAE, several tens of thousands of Europeans engaged in private business, representing the interests of foreign firms and agencies engaged in hiring in local companies. Recently there were technical specialists from Russia, CIS countries, Poland.
The countries of the Asia-Pacific region (APR) represent another center of international migration. Here the main importers of the labor force are Brunei, Japan, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Pakistan, Singapore, Republic of Korea, Taiwan. These countries have different forms of labor migration. Firstly, regulated labor migration, typical for Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, Hong Kong. Secondly, hidden or illegal migration is developed in East and West Malaysia, Hong Kong, Pakistan, Taiwan. Thirdly, the migration of high-skilled labor that accompanies foreign direct investment carried out by Japan, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, Australia.
In the Asia-Pacific region, the classical country of immigration is Australia. Annually, 120-140 thousand immigrants arrive in Australia, most of them with the intention of getting a job. Over the past 40 years, more than 4.5 million immigrants have entered the country, mainly from England, Ireland, Italy, Greece, Yugoslavia, New Zealand. Recently, the flow of settlers from Asia has increased, amounting to one-third of the entire annual quota. The share of foreigners in Australia’s total labor force is 24%. This is higher than the indicator characterizing the presence of immigrants in the total population – 22.3% 100.
Especially it is necessary to say about Japan, which was the center of emigration a century ago. Emigrants from poor rural areas of Japan rushed to the demanding labor force Western Hemisphere. Since the 60s of the XX century, when the rapid growth of the economy began in Japan, the emigration of its citizens has ceased. Moreover, the flows of “nikkei” (emigrant in Japanese) go in the opposite direction. Since the 90s, up to 400,000 foreign workers have come to Japan annually. In Japan, about 1 million people live. foreigners, of whom 72% are Koreans, most of them descendants of workers forcibly brought to the Japanese archipelago after the seizure of Korea in 1910. Most immigrants come illegally from the poorest countries in the region: the Philippines (37%), Bangladesh (20%), Pakistan (17%). Immigrants, as a rule, are used in the most unprincipled works. Men on construction sites (42%) and small ones from subcontracting enterprises (39%), and women in bars and private clubs (80%). Japanese companies in recent years have been active in recruiting talented young scientists and researchers abroad, including in Russia, CIS countries and Eastern and Central Europe. At the same time, it is not only immigration of this contingent of labor resources to Japan that is practiced, but also the fulfillment of various tasks and the solution of scientific and technical problems at home and in foreign branches of Japanese companies. This is economically justified, because Japanese highly skilled labor is one of the most expensive in the world.
Cross-country labor migration is also taking place in Latin America. Since the second half of the XIX century. the continent is becoming one of the world centers of attraction of immigrants, while encouraging, mainly, migration from Europe. This trend persisted until the 60s of the XX century. Only for 1946 – 1960 years. 2 million Europeans moved to Latin America. Since the 1960s, intercontinental migration is increasingly beginning to be replaced by intracontinental migration. The population migrates mainly to the Amazon basin. This applies to countries located in the Andes: Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, Colombia. The intra-continental migration of labor in Latin America has become enduring. This is explained by the shortage of land for the majority of peasants and their incomplete employment, as well as high rates of population growth, which is four times higher than in industrially developed countries. Certain flows are sent to Chile and Argentina, which accept certain contingents of labor immigrants. These are, first of all, highly skilled people or narrow specialists (for example, seamen).
In Africa, about 2 million people are involved in intracontinental migration. In general, richer countries accept unskilled workers from neighboring countries. The richest country in the African continent is South Africa. The first immigrants to this country came from Europe in the early 19th century.
The collapse of the Soviet Union greatly increased the mobility of the population of the former Soviet republics, which led to an increase in the number of international labor migrants. The peak of emigration occurred in 1991, when 760 thousand people left Russia, 80.8 thousand Ukrainians, 78.3 thousand people in Kazakhstan, 26.6 thousand in Uzbekistan, 25.4 thousand in Belarus. Further the emigration flow stabilized, although it remained quite high: in the following years about 80 thousand people left the country annually from Russia, 50 thousand from Ukraine and Kazakhstan, and 10 thousand from Belarus 101. As for the Republic of Belarus, for example, in 1997 the number of immigrants was 31.3 thousand people, emigrants – 17 thousand, the balance of migration was positive. 67% of Belarusian emigrants left for Israel, 36 – in the USA, 4.6% – Germany, the rest – to Australia, Poland and Canada 102. The problem for the Belarusian state was the emigration of scientists. So, for 1996 – 1999 years. emigrants were 278 scientists and teachers. In addition, the number of illegal migrants entering Belarus increases. The majority of illegal immigrants come from Africa and Asia and enter our territory through a “transparent” border with the Russian Federation. The number of illegal migrants in the Republic of Belarus is about 100-150 thousand people, mainly in Belarus they travel from Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Vietnam, China and India. In addition to illegal migrants, there are a lot of former students in Belarus who graduated from higher educational institutions under the contracts concluded by the USSR and also do not have the money to return to their homeland. According to the Committee on Migration under the Ministry of Labor of the Republic of Belarus, during the period of six years, from 1992 to 1997, about 35,000 petitions from foreigners for granting refugee status were registered (without consideration) by Belarusian state bodies. By mid-1998, 57 people received this status, including one of them – a residence permit. By international standards this is quite a lot. For example, the Government of Sweden meets no more than 10 such applications per year. The total number of people wishing to obtain refugee status in the Republic of Belarus may amount to several tens of thousands in the coming years. And this can create a number of serious problems, the main one of which is the provision of work and housing for these people.
So, the migration processes of recent years are characterized not only by the growth of scales, but also by the formation of new phenomena that were not in the recent past. The latter, in particular, is manifested in the fact that an increasing number of countries are involved in the process of simultaneous emigration and immigration of the population. A new phenomenon in the international migration of the labor force is the large movement of labor resources within developing countries, the relentless pressure from the unskilled labor force, wishing to get work in the developed countries of North America and Western Europe. However, in parallel with this process, there is an increase in the scale of the movement of labor between developing countries.
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