Country Lebanon: the capital, history, photo.
The country of Lebanon for its centuries-old history has survived not one dozen devastating wars. That is why the once prosperous state is today called the long-suffering state. But, despite all the disasters, the country Lebanon managed to preserve its unique nature with its valleys and mountains, cedar groves and beaches, as well as historical and architectural monuments that attract tourists from all over the world.
The country of Lebanon, information about which will be useful to tourists planning to spend their holiday on its territory, is on the east coast of the warm Mediterranean Sea. The total area of this small state is 10,452 square kilometers. km.
Which countries border Lebanon? In the north and east it has common borders with Syria, and in the south & ndash; with Israel. The western regions of Lebanon are washed by the waters of the Mediterranean Sea.
The territory of Lebanon is conditionally divided into four sharply differing physico-geographical regions. These include the coastal plain and the mountain range, which has the same name as the country, the Bekaa Valley, as well as the Antilivan mountain chain. The highest point of this Middle Eastern country is at the top of the Kurnes-as-Saud Ridge. This mountain rises above the ground level by 3083 meters.
Among the many rivers in Lebanon is the longest. It is called Litani. This river, 140 km long, flows through the central and southern regions of the country. From the territory of Lebanon, such large rivers as El Hasbani and Orontes originate. In addition to this country, they carry their waters across Israel and Syria.
Origin of name.
According to some historians, the word “Lebanon” comes from the ancient Persian & laivan & aqvang & raquo ;. In translation, it means “vaulted hall” & raquo; or & laquo; terrace on the columns & raquo ;.
There is one more version, according to which, the capital of Lebanon received the name from the ancient Jews. It is in their language that the roots of the naming of this Middle Eastern country should be sought. In translation from it, the word “Lebanon” & raquo; means “white mountains & raquo ;.
The country of Lebanon was attractive to the settlers in the 10th century. BC. e. And already after 7 millennia, the first city-states began to appear on its territory, most of the population of which was merchants and seafarers.
On the Mediterranean coast the Phoenicians founded their settlements. There was no centralized control here. That is why, in order to maintain domination, this people used the power and political wisdom of city-states. The Phoenicians were skilled artisans and were the first to invent the alphabet. This people had their own reliable ships and seafaring skills. His merchants arrived to Spain, Egypt, Northern Europe and to the shores of the entire African continent. Phoenician merchants sold glass and famous purple fabrics. But the cedar forest, which grew on the mountain slopes of Lebanon, still enjoyed special demand among buyers. Of the millennial trunks of this mighty tree, remarkable ships were built. The main centers of Lebanon in those days were cities such as Sidon, Tire, Byblos and Berit (present Beirut).
The Phoenician trade monopoly was destroyed by the Assyrians in the 9th century. BC. e. Further on these lands came the neo-Babylonians, and then, in the 6th c. BC. e., they were replaced by Persians. In the 4th century. BC. e. the country was conquered by Alexander the Great. After this, the Phoenician state finally decayed. In the 1st c. BC. e. neighboring Egypt and Syria were conquered by Rome. The Phenicia also came under the rule of the invaders. The territories of this Mediterranean state became part of the Syrian province.
Between 634 and 639 years. the Arabs came to the Mediterranean lands. They conquered Syria, turning the coastal Phoenician city-states into small settlements. Arabs actively populated the mountainous areas of the country, mastering the valuable fertile lands that are located there.
In the 4th century. BC. e. the country Lebanon became part of the Byzantine Empire. Christianity began to take hold on its territory. However, over the course of a whole century, Miyayadah ruled Lebanon. They belonged to the first great Muslim dynasty and instilled in the people their religion. As a result, there were frequent clashes between supporters of this faith and local Christians, as well as Jews. Particularly active were the Syrian Maronites, who founded their settlements near Mount Lebanon.
In the year 750 the Abbasids began to rule the Middle Eastern state. This empire, one of the provinces of which was Lebanon, lasted until the 11th century. Further power was seized by the Fatimid dynasty, who were forced to give it to the warlike crusaders. After them, the Muslims of Ayyubida invaded Syria, Egypt, Yemen and Western Arabia. But before they could create their own empire, they were overthrown by the Mamelukes – their slave soldiers. These conquerors ruled Lebanon from the 13th century.
Three centuries later, the Mamelukes surrendered their positions under the pressure of Tanuhid’s emirs. & Ndash; tribal chiefs of Lebanon. Part of the country in the 16th century. was captured by the Ottoman Sultan Selim, who was soon replaced by the more talented politician Fahreddin. This sultan was able to unite the whole region, which at present is a country called Lebanon.
History of the modern state.
In the beginning of the 19th century. the country was divided by the Ottomans into two administrative districts: Maronit and Drusus. Quarrels between the regions often broke out, which the Ottoman Empire openly encouraged. As a result, disagreements ended in a war in which not only the Maronites and Druze took part, but also the feudal leaders and peasants who supported them. In the emerging conflict, even European politicians had to intervene. Under their pressure, the Ottomans were forced to unite Lebanon, destroy the feudal system and appoint a Christian governor. This political system lasted until the First World War, during which the country was conquered by the Turkish militarists. After the establishment of peace, France began to rule this Middle Eastern state.
What was next for Lebanon? The history of the country changed dramatically after the Second World War. The state gained independence and became the largest shopping center. This is the time when Lebanon is called a country that was the cultural, historical and financial center of the Arab world, as well as the Middle Eastern Switzerland or Eastern Paris. However, in 1975 the state was waiting for a new test. During this period, Lebanon embraced the economic crisis. In addition, the Muslim coalition and the Christians of the right wing unleashed a civil war that lasted almost two decades.
Lebanon & ndash; this is what country today? At present, the state is on the path of reviving its economy. The tourist business is actively developing on its territory, which, like many decades ago, brings the main revenues to the country’s budget. All this became possible due to the fact that the people of Lebanon managed to preserve the rich history of their region, which everyone can see in mountain caves and ancient Roman buildings, medieval castles and mosques. Today, in this Middle Eastern country, cities are growing, modern hotels are appearing, and in mountainous areas ski resorts such as Mzaar, Faraya and Lakluk are organized.
Lebanon is the country where the zone of Mediterranean subtropics lies. This area is characterized by hot summers and slushy dank winters. In July, the average temperature is +28 degrees, and in January – +13 � C. Frosts only occur in some mountainous areas.
Most of the precipitation falls on the western territory of Lebanon. The peaks of the highest mountains are covered with snow throughout the year.
For those who dream of an excursion or pilgrimage trip to this country, the period from April to May or from October to November is best suited. This is the months when the weather is especially comfortable for a person.
Ski lovers prefer to visit Lebanon from November to April. For those who prefer beach rest, it is recommended to buy tours to the Mediterranean coast from April to November. Anyway, after arriving in Lebanon in the summer, you can enjoy swimming in the sea, and then, after spending an hour on the road, get on a snow-covered ski resort.
Often, the real pearl of the Mediterranean is called Lebanon. This is what country on the world of flora and fauna on its territory? It is worth mentioning that the nature of Lebanon is amazingly picturesque. The country in a direction from the north to the south is crossed by two mountain ranges. One of them stretches parallel to the coastal plain, which is buried in the greenery of banana plantations and orange groves. This is Mount Lebanon. Those its slopes that face the sea are covered with forests of oak, Syrian maple, laurel and wild olive trees. In higher areas, near the peaks, juniper grows, and small groves of Lebanese cedar are also found (its silhouette can be seen on the national flag of the country).
The second mountain range – Antilivan – rises in the eastern part of the country along the borders with Syria. Here you can find karst caves decorated with & laquo; crystal & raquo; stalagmites and stalactites. From the mountain peaks swiftly carry their waters of the river, used as trails for rafting.
Between the two Lebanese ridges is the Bekaa Valley. The southern part of its territory is a real breadbasket of the country and has been cultivated by man for centuries.
The largest city in Lebanon is Beirut. It is not only a famous seaport, but also the capital of the country. Currently Beirut is the most important financial and banking center of the entire Middle East region. In addition, there is a large number of international organizations.
The capital of the country Lebanon was first mentioned in the 15th century. BC. e. under the name of Barut. For a long time the city could not compete with Sidon and Tira. Its heyday came with the arrival of the Romans, who made Beirut the center of Syria and the entire Mediterranean coast.
In 635, the city was captured by the Arabs, including it in the Arab Caliphate. From 1516 to 1918, Beirut was owned by the Turks, who planted their customs to the local population. Further it was the center of the state, of concern to France. And only since 1941 the capital of the country Lebanon became the main city of an independent republic.
Beirut was seriously destroyed during the civil war in 1975, but by the end of the 20th century. it was time for his rebirth. Today it is the cultural, intellectual and commercial center of the entire Eastern Mediterranean. The city is well-developed medium and small business, industrial production of food, leather and textile industries. In addition, Beirut is an exporter of fruits, olive oil and silk.
Not far from the capital of Lebanon is the international airport. He connects the country with all the continents of our planet.
Modern Lebanon & ndash; Arab country. 95% of the total population, and it is about 4 million, & ndash; Arabs. The remaining 5% of the population of Lebanon is represented by Kurds, Greeks, Armenians, Turks, etc. It is interesting that today the oil-rich country has been able to raise its economy to such a level that there are no homeless and poor people among its inhabitants.
Lebanon & ndash; Muslim country. After all, almost 60% of the population adheres to this belief. Christians account for 39%. The remaining percentage of the population professes other religions.
Christians are trying to leave this Middle Eastern state. They travel around the world making their choice between Latin America, Israel, European countries, the United States. Lebanon had not previously been able to ensure their safety in connection with the attacks of Palestinian terrorists. Now Christians are on the path of emigration because of the paramilitary political party of Hezbollah.
The official language of the country is Arabic. However, many residents of Lebanon are fluent in French and English.
Lebanon & ndash; a true historical museum of the Middle East. In the territory of this small country there are many cultural and natural attractions. Among them:
the most ancient city on our planet & ndash; Byblos; The temple complex, erected during the Roman Empire, located in Baalbek; remnants of once powerful cities of the Phoenician state (Tire, Sidon and Trablos); the fortified city of Anjar, preserved from the era of the Omayyads (58 km from Beirut); the palace ensemble Beiteddin; Saint-Gill & ndash; Medieval fortress, located in the city of Tripoli.
A large number of interesting historical places can be seen in every city of the Republic of Lebanon. So, in the capital is the National Museum, in Sidon & ndash; The Sea Castle and the Museum of Soap. An interesting place for the excursion will be the Cedar Reserve, located at an altitude of 2 thousand meters. Here you can find trees that are 2000 years old.
Among the interesting sights of Lebanon there are also:
Church of John the Baptist, located in the central part of Byblos town; The mosque of Omar, which is one of the most ancient buildings of Beirut; Museum Surskok, named after the founder of his scholar; the museum of Cilicia, which is an island of Armenian culture; caves of Jaita, surprising with its natural beauty (located near Beirut in the valley of the river Nahr Al-Kalb).
In Beirut cellular communication is widely spread, corresponding to the GSM-900 standard. Local SIM cards accept incoming calls for free. The cost of outgoing is within seven cents per minute. There are also roaming in Lebanon with the leading Russian operators of cellular networks. The cost of one minute of conversation with our country costs about two dollars.
Calls abroad are also made from hotels, from fixed telephones and street phones. There are two types of phone cards in Lebanon. Some of them (Telecard) are used only when using city phones. The second (Kalam) is suitable for connection from any telephone set.
In order to call the Middle East, you need to know the country code of Lebanon. It is needed to enter the international communication line.
Country code Lebanon & ndash; 961. It needs to be dialed both when calling from a mobile phone or for connecting from a landline phone.
Features of the country.
A friendly and kind people live in Lebanon, which, as a rule, adheres to European norms of conduct. However, it is worth remembering that this eastern country has a number of features. For example, if a Lebanese offered you a coffee, then you should not refuse. Your unwillingness will be taken as the highest sign of disrespect.
Also, it is not worth talking to local residents about the relationship between ethnic groups or discussing political affairs. You can not photograph the Lebanese without asking their permission.
Special rules exist when visiting mosques. You need to enter them in closed clothes. In addition, women need to tie a headscarf on their heads. Representatives of the beautiful half of humanity should not walk the streets in very short skirts and over-open blouses.
Country Lebanon: the capital, history, photo.