9.3. State regulation of labor migration.
Migration policy – a set of measures for state and interstate regulation on the legislative basis of immigration and emigration flows of the population.
Regulation of labor migration occupies a special place in migration policy. The export and import of labor are carried out on the basis of national legislation, as well as bilateral and multilateral interstate agreements.
The state regulation of labor immigration has two main objectives:
1) to achieve its desired scale for the country;
2) selecting the right employees from the general flow of potential immigrants.
When filtering immigrants, a complex system of restrictions is developed, which is similar in many countries. First of all, high demands are placed on the qualification of the workforce (availability of a diploma on higher or secondary special education, documents confirming a certain length of service in the specialty, etc.). For example, in Australia, the following Russian diplomas are recognized as legal: industrial engineers, computer specialists and accountants, as well as certificates of professional education for metal fitters, electricians, metalworker workers. And the professional work experience should be at least three years. In the US, in many companies and research institutes, despite the availability of vacancies, only experienced researchers with at least 5 years experience can be employed. And in Oman, the UAE and Qatar for cooks you need an experience of at least 5 years.
The age requirement is the next priority requirement. For example, Sweden and Norway accept drilling oilmen only between the ages of 20 and 40, the UAE requires doctors and nurses aged 30-45 years.
An important “filter” for the entry of foreign workers is the state of their health. In particular, drug addicts, people with AIDS and various mental illnesses are prohibited from entering. Swedish and Norwegian employers employ preliminary medical and psychological testing of foreign candidates for work.
Another requirement for foreign labor is its social and political integrity. Thus, in the United States, the entry into the country of members of a communist or any other party of a totalitarian type is restricted, and persons convicted of criminal offenses or whose presence in the country may damage its international interests are also not allowed.
To regulate the number of travelers, the immigration quota is used on the scale of the economy, industries and even enterprises, which is revised every year. When determining the quota, the needs of the country in the foreign labor force for certain categories are taken into account, as well as the state of the national labor and housing market, the political and social situation in the importing country.
In addition to the quota, the host country can establish for immigrants a restrictive period of stay and work, prohibit work in some specialty, in some branches or enterprises, identify the professions for which the preferred mode of entry into the country is established. For example, in Norway, work permits for foreigners are issued only for one year, in Turkey there is a list of occupations that foreigners can not deal with (doctors, lawyers, pharmacists, pilots, miners, drivers, fishermen, waiters, property agents, brokers exchange, watchman, tour guides).
The object of regulation is not only immigration, but also re-emigration (the return of immigrants to their homeland). Currently, developed countries have developed programs designed to encourage the outflow of immigrant workers from the country:
1. Compensation programs that provide for monetary payments to immigrants for the premature termination of their activities, payment of expenses related to their departure to their home country, including the cost of tickets.
2. Vocational training programs – provide for the organization of special vocational training for unskilled workers with a view to their rapid entry into the economy of their home country.
3. Programs of economic assistance to countries and regions of mass emigration – with the aim of stimulating their internal economic development, increasing jobs and employment, providing loans to potential emigrants who wish to open their own business in their homeland and not leave it.
The state regulation of emigration of labor or the emigration policy of exporting countries should promote:
– Reduction of unemployment in the country due to the outflow of surplus labor;
– receipt of foreign currency funds from emigrants;
– providing emigrants abroad with a corresponding standard of living;
– the return of emigrants to their homeland with the acquisition abroad of their professions and education.
In order to receive from foreign currency citizens, the state grants them the right to open accounts with national banks and their foreign branches both in local and foreign currencies, paying a higher interest on deposits.
To involve the savings of migrants in the development of the national economy, the state encourages their investing in securities, providing financial incentives to investors. For example, in India the acquired government securities are not taxed. In addition, the state grants privileges and assists its citizens-emigrants who want to invest their earnings in the national economy. In Turkey, for example, individuals who have foreign currency accounts with banks are eligible for priority loans. In Pakistan, the law allows all Pakistanis working abroad to invest in all areas of the national economy without a special government license, in India, state corporations have been created in each state, which provide advisory services to Hindus who return to their homeland and wish to organize and independently run their own business.
States exporting labor force link this process with the conquest of foreign markets. For example, the Philippines encourages the departure of specialists such as installers of heavy equipment, welders, builders, because this is usually associated with an increase in exports of domestic building materials and equipment.
Countries exporting labor force actively influence the volume and structure of emigration flows. At the same time, in order to prevent the departure of workers of scarce specialties and personnel devastation of certain regions of the country, the state establishes restrictions:
Limitation (restriction) of the issuance of foreign passports (China, South Korea, Vietnam);
the introduction of emigration quotas (share) or the ban on the departure of certain categories of workers;
allocation of priority regions of the country by the employment criterion. For example, in Turkey the pre-emptive right to labor emigration is granted to residents of economically developed regions, zones of natural disasters, members of agricultural cooperatives.
To speed up and facilitate the process of adaptation of returning migrants, states have developed special measures to facilitate their establishment in the public or private sector of the economy.
Thus, the migration policy must be well thought out and balanced in order to streamline the cross-country labor overflows.
International labor migration is the movement of the able-bodied population between countries, caused by economic reasons. Comes from emigration – exit from the country and from immigration – entry into the country. Emigration and immigration have both pluses and minuses for importing countries and labor-exporting countries.
The main international labor markets are the USA, Canada and Australia, the countries of Western Europe, the Middle East, the Asia-Pacific region, Latin America and Africa (South Africa). The mass character of migration flows has transformed the labor force into an important factor in the social and economic development of the world economy.
The regulation of labor migration presupposes that states carry out a well-thought-out and balanced migration policy in order to minimize losses and increase the economic effect for the country from immigration and emigration of labor.
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9.3. State regulation of labor migration.